Structural Building Design

Lateral forces caused by winds are a major factor in the design of tall buildings. Even in locations belonging
to low-wind zones, tall buildings are designed for the wind effects. The greatest wind effect is caused
by hurricanes and tornadoes. Hurricane is the highest wind storm on the earth, and few natural disasters
can pose as much calamity as a hurricane can.1 Hurricanes can make landfall with sustained winds greater
than 155 mph. During their lifetime they can expend as much energy as 10,000 nuclear bombs. They are
called by different names in different parts of the world. They are called typhoons in the western Pacific
and China Sea area. In Australia, Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, they are called cyclones. They are named
baguios in the Philippines. Their scientific name is “tropical storm.” They are storm systems consisting of a
large low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain. The wind
rotates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere during a hurricane. When saturated air rises, water
evaporated from the ocean is released and water vapor contained in the moist air condenses. At any height
in the atmosphere, the center of a tropical cyclone will be warmer than its surroundings. In general, it is a
large system of spinning air that rotates around a point of low pressure.